About the Teeth

The visible part of the tooth inside the mouth is called the crown. Crown is one-third of the total tooth size. The part that penetrates into and encircled by the gingiva is the neck. The non-visible part of the tooth which is inside the jawbone is the root. Root is two-thirds of the total tooth size. The tooth consists of enamel, dentin, cement, and tooth pulp.


The crown (visible part in the mouth) of the tooth is covered with enamel. Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body. The enamel has to be hard to function properly. The enamel protects the sensitive tissues inside the inner parts of the tooth. Therefore, the enamel has to be resistant to the enzymes, acids, and corrosive substances inside the mouth. Besides, the enamel keeps its hardness in high-temperature differences. Thus, the enamel is not broken when you eat ice-cream or drink coffee.


Dentin is the layer under the enamel. It is not as hard as the enamel. It is sensitive to touching and temperature. Dentin comprises 75% of tooth of an adult. While it is covered by the enamel in the crown part, cement covers it in the root of the tooth. Besides, dentin has the feature to recreate dentin tissue thanks to the recovery cells it contains.


Dental pulp is the soft tissue in the innermost part of the tooth. It is comprised of blood vessels and nerves. While the vessels feed the dentin, the nerves enable to perceive the senses such as hot, cold, and pressure.



The root of the tooth is covered with cement. Cement is a hard and bonelike layer, but it is not as hard as the enamel. The  role of the cement is to make the tooth root grip the bone.



Teeth are a part of digestive system. Teeth break off, crash and break up the food.

Teeth help to speak. They enable the voices to be produced properly.

Teeth have aesthetical functions. Teeth make great contribution to the appearance of the human.

Teeth protect the tissues around them and help their improvement.


Teeth vary according to their roles.


The foretooth in the upper and lower jaw is called the incisors. As it may be understood from their names, the incisors cut the food. There are 8 incisors in a mouth, 4 in upper and 4 in the lower jaw.

Canine teeth:

They are the ones located right next to the incisors, in the corners of the mouth. They are called “canine” in dentistry. They enable the breaking off of the food. There are 4 canine teeth in a mouth, 2 in upper and 2 in the lower jaw.

Grinder (Molar) Teeth:

They are located right behind the canine teeth. There are two types of grinder teeth; premolar and molar. The chewing function is performed in the molar area. There are 20 grinder teeth in the mouth; 2 premolars and 3 molars in each half (upper and lower) jaw. The wisdom teeth are also among the grinders.



Speaking is a very important function for mutual relations. Teeth have a role in speaking properly, too. For instance;

For Z and S sounds, the tongue tip touches the palatine side of the upper incisors; and the side edges of the tongue touches to the side edges of the palate and the palatine side of the upper molars.

For N sound, the tip of the tongue touches the palatine side of the upper incisors; and the side edges of the tongue touch the edges of the palate.

For V and F sounds, the edges of the upper incisors touch the lower lip.

For D and T sounds, the tip of the tongue gets support from the palatine slope of the upper incisors.



The first indications regarding the odontogenesis begin in the 6th week of pregnancy. After the 7th week, the outlines of the teeth begin to appear gradually.



The first teeth erupt when the baby is 6 months old. One of the incisor teeth, in the upper or lower jaw, erupt in the mouth initially. The eruption time of the teeth varies from person to person. This has no meaning medically. The last teeth to erupt in the mouth are the wisdom teeth. Below, there is a chart to help to understand the time of each tooth eruption. However, the values in the chart are average since the eruption time varies aong individuals as it has been stated just before.




The first tooth appears approximately in the 4th month. The parents perform brushing. Tootbrushes are designed for the perants for these purposes.


By the end of this period, all deciduous teeth would have erupted. The children try to brush their own teeth, but the parents’s help isneeded.. The animated cartoon characters that attract children’s attention are suitable for this phase.


First permanent molar teeth erupt, and the deciduous teeth fall. The parents supervise the children while they are brushing their own teeth. The animated cartoon characters that attract children’s attention are suitable for this phase.